6.2. System of launch of the engine

General information
The starter is an engine of a direct current with a power supply from the rechargeable battery which transfers torque to a bent shaft of the engine.

Set anchor shaft

Fig. 6.3. Starter: 1 – switch of the traction relay; 2 – returnable spring of a core; 3 – anchor core; 4 – cap; 5 – stopper; 6 – lever of turning on of the drive; 7 – top part of the case; 8 – persistent coupling; 9 – lock ring of a gear wheel; 10 – lock coupling of a gear wheel; 11 – drive assembled; 12 – basic cogwheel; 13 – needle bearing; 14 – shaft assembled; 15 – washer; 16 – needle bearing; 17 – guard; 18 – current supply knot case; 19 – engine anchor assembled; 20 – brush holder assembled; 21 – ball bearing; 22 – collector part of the case; 23 – screw; 24 – through bolt; 25 – nut

For ensuring high efficiency and durability of work the anchor with 21 cuts is used (on two rounds on a cut), and all connections of conductors are executed with use of welding (fig. 6.3). The anchor is balanced and impregnated with additional isolation. The anchor shaft from a collector leans on the ball bearing, and on the other hand – on the needle bearing of an arm of a planetary reducer. The arm of satellites and a shaft are installed on needle bearings in a stationary cogwheel with internal gearing in the reducer case.

Planetary reducer
The planetary reducer provides high output power per unit mass of a starter, generally thanks to existence of the cogwheels with the big transfer relation made by method of powder metallurgy. The solar gear wheel of a planetary reducer is executed as a part of a shaft of an anchor. In an arm of a planetary reducer there are three gear wheels established on needle bearings for ensuring high overall performance and low noise level. Teeths in assembled form of a gear wheel of a shaft of an anchor rotate between three satellites. Thus, satellites together with shaft of an anchor rotate in the motionless cogwheel with internal gearing recorded in the reducer case. Installation of various transfer numbers depending on the sizes of torque and speed of rotation demanded for launch of the engine is possible.

Case of a starter and magnetic field
Four ferrite permanent magnets protected from corrosion, serving as polar tips are installed in the thin-walled case of a starter processed by zinc bichromate. Use of permanent magnets instead of coils of excitement allows to avoid the losses of power inherent in such coils, and provides high efficiency and durability of operation of this engine. Thanks to refusal of excitement coils the electric motor design considerably becomes simpler as need for installation and connection of coils disappears.

Traction relay
New, the traction relay with high magnetic efficiency is installed to the improved design in the general case for the best tightness and high reliability with a small weight. For bigger durability the core of an anchor of the traction relay is covered with chrome and nickel, all external contacts of a winding are welded, and external metal details have a metal covering and are painted. The contact block for tight connection with electric system is also established.

Collector brushes
The knot of brushes of a collector consists of brass radial brush holders, four brushes with big service life and spiral brush springs. Reliable work of knot is promoted by application of advanced electric connections and a strong conclusion of the engine.

Fig. 6.4. Electric circuit of inclusion of a starter: 1 – rechargeable battery; 2 – ignition switch; 3 – traction relay; 4 – VAT plug; 5 – plug S; 6 – plug M; 7 – starter engine; 8 – the switch blocking a starter by the included transfer

The starter is made in the block with the lever of turning on of the drive and the coil with an anchor; the case of a starter protects these elements from hit of dirt, frosting and splashes. As shown in the electric circuit (fig. 6.4), through a winding of the coil there passes current at turning on of the switch of ignition. As a result of movement of a core of an anchor and the lever the cogwheel enters gearing with a gear wreath of a flywheel of the engine, and the main contacts of the traction relay become isolated then the engine of a starter turns on and begins to turn a bent shaft.
As soon as there is a launch of the engine, the coupling of a free wheeling protects a starter rotor from rotation with an excessive frequency of rotation until shutdown of the switch of ignition then the returnable spring brings a cogwheel out of gearing. In order to avoid excessively long rotation of a rotor the switch of ignition has to be brought out of the provision of start-up right after the beginning of operation of the engine.

Diagnostics of system of launch of the engine
Before removal of any knot of system of launch of the engine for repair it is necessary to carry out the following inspections.

Rechargeable battery
For definition of a condition of the rechargeable battery to perform the procedure of tests described in the head "Rechargeable battery".

Electric wires
To examine wires for the purpose of identification of damages. Examine all wires conducting to the starter engine, the traction relay, the switch of ignition and the rechargeable battery including all wires connected to "weight". If necessary clear and reliably delay all connections.

Switch of the traction relay and ignition
Examine switches for definition of their state.

Noise during the operation of the engine of a starter
For elimination of noise of the engine of a starter at start-up to perform the following operations:
1. According to table 6.1 find out the reason of emergence of noise.

2. For elimination of a gnash at inclusion of a starter starter shift can be required for what perform the following operations:
– check a flywheel for existence of damages – deformations, unusual wear, etc.;
– launch the engine of the car and carefully bring closer a piece of chalk to a gear wreath of a flywheel to note a point of the maximum radial beating of teeths. Switch off the engine and turn a flywheel so that noted teeths entered gearing with a starter gear wheel;
– disconnect a wire from the negative plug of the rechargeable battery to prevent launch of the engine;

Fig. 6.5. Measurement of a gap between a gear wreath of a flywheel and a gear wheel of a starter: 1 – flywheel; 2 – starter gear wheel; 3 – wire probe with a diameter of 0,5 mm

– check a gap between a gear wheel of a starter and a gear wreath of a flywheel, as shown in fig. 6.5, using the wire probe of the minimum thickness with a (diameter) of 0,50 mm. Establish starter gear wheel tooth between two teeths of a gear wreath of a flywheel in the middle and enter the probe. Do not install the probe in corners where it will be possible to receive the increased gap. If the gap is less than thickness of the probe, then it is necessary to move a starter from a flywheel;
– if a gap much more 0,5 mm (about 1,5 mm and more), it is necessary to establish a starter closer to a flywheel, using laying of the required thickness (existence of a big gap usually is the reason of breakage of teeths of a flywheel or the case of a starter). Movement of a starter to a flywheel is carried out laying installation only under an external part of adjusting inflow. Installation of laying 0,4 mm thick in this place will allow to reduce a gap approximately by 0,3 mm. In the absence of standard laying of a starter it is possible to apply flat washers.

Starter engine
If the rechargeable battery, wires and switches are in satisfactory condition, and it is known that the engine of the car works properly, remove the engine of a starter and execute the corresponding checks.
Do not turn on the starter engine for time exceeding 30 with, without interruption on cooling what requires, at least, 2 min. The overheat caused by a long provorachivaniye of a bent shaft can seriously damage the starter engine. The engine of a starter does not demand lubricant except for lubricant when carrying out repair work.

Service on the car

1. Disconnect a wire from the negative plug of the rechargeable battery.
2. Disconnect wires from a starter.
3. Turn out the top and lower bolts of fastening of a starter.
4. Remove a starter.
1. Establish a starter.
2. Screw the top and lower bolts of fastening of a starter and tighten their moment 45 N • m.
3. Connect wires to a starter.
4. Connect a wire to the negative plug of the rechargeable battery.

Traction relay
1. Disconnect a wire from the negative plug of the rechargeable battery.
2. Remove a starter.
3. Remove a connecting crossing point.
4. Turn out through bolts and remove the traction relay and the drive of a starter.
1. Install the traction relay and the drive on a starter and fix by through bolts.
2. Establish a connecting crossing point.
3. Establish a starter.
4. Connect a wire to the negative plug of the rechargeable battery.

Check and repair of a starter
For dismantling, check and assembly of a starter execute the following operations.

Check without loading
After removal of a starter from the engine of the car check a gear wheel for a possibility of free rotation by turning on screw to a shaft. Check an anchor for free rotation by turning of a gear wheel the screw-driver.
If the anchor freely does not rotate, so the engine of a starter it is necessary to sort. However if the anchor rotates freely, then before dismantling it is necessary to carry out test of the engine of a starter without loading.

Fig. 6.6. Check without loading: 1 – rechargeable battery; 2 – carbon column; 3 – ampermeter; 4 – voltmeter; 5 – switch; 6 – traction relay; 7 – VAT plug; 8 – plug S; 9 – plug M; 10 – starter engine; 11 – tachometer

Make an electric chain, as shown in fig. 6.6. Close the switch and compare indications of a tachometer, the ampermeter and the voltmeter to the sizes specified in specifications. If the size of the consumed current specified in specifications does not include consumption of current the traction relay, subtract from indications for an anchor the nominal size of consumption of current a winding of the traction relay.
Disconnect wires only at the opened switch.
Results of tests are treated as follows.
1. Receiving nominal rates of consumption of current and frequency of rotation at test without loading means that the starter is in the normal state.
2. Obtaining low value of frequency of rotation without loading and the big size of the consumed current means the following:
– too big friction because of strongly tightened, polluted or worn-out bearings, a curved shaft of the anchor causing its zadevaniye;
– short circuit in anchor windings. Existence of this defect can be checked on the device for detection of short-circuited rounds after dismantling of a starter;
– short circuit of an anchor or winding of the relay on "weight". Is subject to further check after dismantling.
3. Lack of rotation of the engine of a starter at zero consumption of current means the following:
– direct short circuit on "weight" on the plug or in a winding;
– "sticking" of bearings (this defect can be found in attempt to turn an anchor manually);
– break of an electric chain of the relay. This defect can be found after dismantling at survey of internal connections and checks of a chain by means of a control lamp;
– break of rounds of a winding of the engine. After dismantling check a collector for existence of strongly burned slightly plates;
– destruction of the springs pressing brushes, wear of brushes, an isolation vystupaniye between plates of a collector or other reasons interfering reliable contact between brushes and a collector.
4. Low frequency of rotation without loading and small consumption of current mean the following:
– high internal resistance because of unreliable contacts, defects of wires, pollution of a collector and other reasons listed in item 3.
5. High frequency of rotation without loading and big consumption of current usually point to short circuits in starter windings. At suspicion of windings of the relay replace the coil with short circuits assembled. Besides, check an anchor for existence of short circuits by means of the device for detection of short-circuited rounds.

Dismantling of a starter
1. Disconnect a connecting crossing point from the plug of the switch of the traction relay.
2. Turn out and take through bolts.
3. Remove the case of the traction relay and the drive.
4. Remove the starter case with polar tips.
5. Turn out two screws from the case from a collector.
6. Remove the ball bearing from a collector.
7. Remove the brush holder assembled and an anchor assembled.
8. Take a shaft and the drive from the case from the drive.
9. Remove a persistent washer.

Fig. 6.7. Removal of a stopper from a locking ring: 1 – coupling of 14 mm in depth; 2 – stopper

10. Put on the coupling of 14 mm in depth or a suitable piece of a pipe a shaft and press a persistent washer of a gear wheel (stopper) (fig. 6.7). Using this coupling as a stripper, tapping, shift a stopper from a locking ring.
11. Remove a locking ring from a shaft.
12. Remove the drive and a basic gear wheel from a shaft.

Cleaning, survey and check of elements of a starter
Brush holder

Fig. 6.8. Check of the brush holder on reliability of isolation

Check brushes for wear existence. If excessive wear in comparison with new brushes is found, replace brushes. It is necessary to be convinced that brush holders are not polluted and brushes in them do not get stuck. For ensuring reliable operation of the engine of a brush have to adjoin to a collector all surface. Pressing check that springs provide a strong prileganiye of brushes to a collector. If springs are deformed or changed the color, it is necessary to replace the brush holder. Check brush holders for reliability of isolation (fig. 6.8).

Do not grind and do not grind a collector on an anchor. The anchor should be checked for existence of short circuits, gaps and contacts with "weight".

1. Define places of short circuits when turning an anchor in the device for detection of short-circuited rounds with application of the steel strip (such as a hacksaw cloth) withheld on an anchor. On the site of short circuit the steel strip will vibrate.
2. Breaks can be found at survey of junctions of conductors with a collector. In the presence of unreliable contacts there is a sparking and a podgoraniye of a collector. If plates of a collector burned slightly slightly, it is possible to solder wires to plates again.

Fig. 6.9. Check of an anchor on short circuit on "weight"

3. Short circuit of windings of an anchor with "weight" can be found by means of a control lamp. If the lamp lights up when one probe is installed on a collector, and another – on the core of an anchor or on a shaft, short circuit of an anchor on "weight" (fig. 6.9) takes place. If the collector is worn-out, polluted, has ovality or isolation goes beyond a surface, replace an anchor.
Windings of the traction relay
Check consumption of current windings of the traction relay as follows.
If windings of the traction relay are not removed from a starter, it is necessary to disconnect tips of a connecting crossing point from the winding plug before conducting check. An inspection needs to be carried out in the shortest possible time not to allow a winding overheat.

Fig. 6.10. A chain for check of the traction relay of a starter: 1 – rechargeable battery; 2 – coal column; 3 – "weight"; 4 – plug R; 5 – plug B; 6 – voltmeter; 7 – plug S; 8 – plug M; 9 – switch; 10 – ampermeter

For check of the holding winding connect the ampermeter consistently to the rechargeable battery with tension of 12 V and the plug S (switch) of the traction relay (fig. 6.10). Connect the voltmeter to the plug S and to "weight". Close plugs of the rechargeable battery through a coal column. Establish voltage of 10 V and write down indications of the ampermeter. For all starters this size has to make 13-19 A.
For check of both windings make the same chain as it is stated above. Connect the plug M (engine) of the traction relay to "weight". Establish voltage of 10 V and write down indications of the ampermeter. For all starters this size has to make 59-79 A.

The size of current will decrease in process of a warming up of windings.
Excess of size of consumption of current in comparison with nominal rate demonstrates existence in windings of the relay of short circuit or contact with "weight"; in this case it is necessary to replace the traction relay. The underestimated sizes of consumption of current in comparison with nominal rate indicate presence of excess resistance. Lack of indications of the ampermeter testifies to a rupture of a chain. Check all contacts and, if necessary, replace the relay.

Fig. 6.11. Installation of a stopper on a locking ring: 1 – stopper; 2 – auxiliary washer; 3 – locking ring

Assembly of a starter
1. Install the coupling on a shaft. To facilitate installation of a locking ring and stopper on an anchor, execute the following operations:
– establish a stopper on an anchor shaft so that the party with dredging was directed to a flute of a locking ring;
– establish a locking ring on a shaft end face. Using wooden laying, advance a ring on a shaft, slightly striking with the hammer, and insert a ring into a flute;

Races. 6.13. The scheme for check of operation of the generator on the car: 1 – rechargeable battery; 2 – coal column (loading); 3 – ampermeter; 4 – generator; 5 – consumer of the electric power; 6 – block; 7 – socket; 8 – connector; 9 – digital universal measuring device

– to pull a stopper over a locking ring, establish a suitable washer on a shaft and passatizham squeeze together a stopper and a washer (fig. 6.13);
– remove a washer;
– establish a persistent washer on a shaft.
2. Further assembly is carried out to the sequences, the return dismantling.