15.1. General information
The car of the Daewoo Espero model is equipped with the V5 compressor of the air conditioning system with a variable productivity and meets the requirements of automatic air conditioning under any conditions.
V5 air conditioning system
The main mechanism of the compressor is an inclined disk with the changing corner and five cylinders located on an axis. Control of productivity of the compressor is exercised by the adjusting valve in turn operated by the corrugated membrane located on a back part of the compressor. The corner of an inclined disk and productivity of the compressor are regulated depending on pressure difference in a case of the engine and in an inlet collector. If energy consumption by the air conditioning system high, then pressure of absorption is above a control point; via the valve the gas going from a case to a collector at the same time will be pitted there will be no pressure difference in a case of the engine and in an inlet collector and then the working volume of the compressor will be maximum. If loading is one air conditioning system lower and pressure of absorption reaches a control point, then via the valve exhaust gas will go to a case of the engine and pass will be closed from a case to the soaking-up camera.
The tilt angle of a disk depends on power balance on five pistons. Slight increase of a difference of pressure in a case of the engine and in an inlet collector creates on pistons the net force which sets them in motion around an axis of turn of an inclined disk that reduces a disk corner.
As in the V5 compressor the relay of variable pressure is not used, not to allow low loading of the compressor, the switch of low pressure is used. This switch is also used for shutdown of the compressor in cold weather.
On the case of the compressor there is a drain stopper. At removal of the compressor and plum of oil from it turn out a stopper and merge oil from a carving opening. Completely to clear the compressor of oil, it is also necessary to merge oil from the soaking-up and final channels.
Functional knots of system
Fig. 15.1. Standard scheme of the air conditioning system: and – coolant under high pressure; b – gaseous coolant under high pressure; with – coolant under low pressure; d – gaseous coolant under low pressure; 1 – compressor; 2 – condenser; 3 – a pipe with coolant; 4 – broad pipe (exhaust pipe); 5 – evaporator; 6 – accumulator; 7 – package of a dehumidifier; 8 – the channel for removal of oil; 9 – perepuskny valve
The drive of the compressor is carried out by a belt from a bent shaft through a coupling pulley. The compressor pulley constantly rotates, but does not set in motion a compressor shaft until the electromagnetic winding of coupling is not excited. For excitement of a winding of coupling tension moves, and the clutch plate knot with a nave is removed towards a pulley back. Magnetic force closes a clutch plate and a pulley therefore the shaft of the compressor is set in motion in one knot. Rotation of a shaft of the compressor leads to the fact that in the evaporator gaseous coolant of low pressure compresses and goes out of the compressor under the high pressure (fig. 15.1). With coolant leaves as well the cooling oil which is used for compressor lubricant.
The compressor is equipped with the perepuskny valve which carries out a safety lock role in system. Under certain conditions coolant on the pressure head party can exceed settlement working pressure. To prevent damage of system, the valve automatically opens with a pressure about 3036 kPa. In certain cases (the faulty switch of high pressure, the cooling electric fan, etc. does not operate) the valve can open and then it is necessary to eliminate malfunction which became the reason of operation of the valve, and also if necessary to replace oil and coolant.
Condenser radiator core
The condenser block located before a radiator consists of tubes on which coolant, and the cooling edges which provide heat exchange flows. The air passing through the condenser cools pairs of high pressure therefore it is condensed and turns into liquid.
Broad tube (conclusion)
The plastic broad tube together with the mesh filter and a conclusion is located in an entrance pipe of the evaporator at the pipeline socket. It is intended for restriction of high pressure of liquid coolant in the pipeline and at the same time there is a measurement of a stream of coolant to the evaporator. The broad tube and a conclusion on both sides are protected from pollution by mesh filters. When carrying out maintenance this tube is not maintainable and it needs to be replaced with new.
When the engine is switched off, and air conditioning system works, coolant will pass in system from the high pressure of a broad tube (conclusion) to the party of low pressure until pressure is not leveled. It can be determined by a weak sound of the current liquid during 30–60 with that is the normal state.
The evaporator is intended for cooling and drainage of air before it gets to interior of the car. Liquid coolant under high pressure proceeds through a broad tube (conclusion) in a zone of low pressure in the evaporator. The evaporator of air which is warmly passing through a core it is transferred to the cooling surface of a core and thus air is cooled. While there is a process of heat exchange of air on a surface of a core of the evaporator all moisture which is contained in air is besieged, condensed on an external surface of a core of the evaporator, and then flows down in the form of water.
Fig. 15.2. Accumulator: 1 – conclusion; 2 – an entrance opening for gaseous coolant; 3 – entrance; 4 – the directing partition; 5 – internal pipe; 6 – package of a dehumidifier; 7 – filter; 8 – an arrangement of the drain device on a pipe
The tight block of the accumulator connected to an exhaust pipe of the evaporator represents a container for storage of coolant to which comes gaseous and a little liquid coolant, and also the cooling oil from the evaporator (fig. 15.2).
In the lower part of the accumulator there is a moisture absorber of the moisture getting into system. The drain device is also located about the lower bound of the removing pipe of the accumulator and on it oil comes back to the compressor. The carving opening of the valve of Schröder from low pressure is located in the top part of the accumulator. When carrying out maintenance the accumulator is not repaired, and replaced new.
The radiator of a heater increases air temperature before it gets to interior of the car. Hot cooling liquid of the engine circulates on a core of a radiator of a heater and heats the external air passing through core edges. The radiator functions constantly and can be used for a work combination in the mode of conditioning, heating or ventilation.
Adjustment of basic elements of system
Fig. 15.3. Handles of adjustment of the modes of air conditioning: A – regulator of speed of rotation of the fan; B – the fan is switched off, at the same time there is no air stream; C – the maximum cooling is reached by regeneration of air in interior of the car and its giving through individual conclusions of the passenger; D – external air is conditioned and goes via individual deflectors of the passenger; E – the conditioned air goes via individual and floor deflectors, and also a part – to a windshield; F – the compressor is switched off, but external air passes through individual deflectors of the passenger; G – the compressor is switched off, but external air arrives at the following distribution: 80% – on a floor, 20% – on a windshield; The N – the conditioned air is distributed as follows: 80% – on a windshield, 20% – on a floor; I – the rotary switch of temperature regulates air temperature, the car coming to salon
Fig. 15.4. Standard scheme of an air stream of air conditioning system: 1 – antizapotevatel of side glass; 2 – heater/anti-icer gate; 3 – gate of the high mode; 4 – heater radiator; 5 – gate of adjustment of temperature; 6 – evaporator radiator core; 7 – fan engine; 8 – external air; 9 – the recirculated air; 10 – external air; 11 – camera of elevated pressure of air; 12 – the recirculated air; 13 – gate of the input channel; 14 – cold air; 15 – hot air; 16 – cold air; 17 – hot air; 18 – conditioning mode; 19 – two-level mode; 20 – heating; 21 – anti-frosting; 22 – gate of the low mode; 23 – the channel for air conditioning; 24 – final valves of a heater; 25 – anti-frosting; 26 – heating; 27 – final valves of anti-icer
Fig. 15.5. Elements of system of distribution of air: 1 – regulator of provision of a mirror; 2 – left deflector; 3 – left shutter of a nozzle of an air duct; 4 – left shutter of a nozzle; 5 – an air duct nest on the left side of the dashboard; 6 – left side defroster; 7 – left side deflector; 8 – left side air duct of defroster of glass; 9 – left panel of an air duct; 10 – left deflector of defroster of glass; 11 – left air duct of defroster of glass; 12 – right deflector of defroster of glass; 13 – right panel of an air duct; 14 – right side air duct of defroster of glass; 15 – right air duct of defroster of glass; 16 – top connection of the block; 17 – right air duct; 18 – connector of a back air duct; 19 – left air duct
Work of air conditioning system is regulated by handles on the control unit (fig. 15.3). Coupling of the compressor and the fan of air supply are connected to the control unit. In the VYKL mode the chain of the fan is opened, the stream of air moves at one of four speeds which are available in other modes. The cooled and drained air moves in the following modes: maximum, normal, two-level and mode of defrosting. Depending on position of the handle of management of temperature on the control unit temperature of the air given to salon is regulated. This handle is connected by a cable to the gate which regulates the air stream passing through a core of a radiator of a heater (fig. 15.4, 15.5). When moving the handle of temperature on a scale the sliding clip on a cable of the gate of adjustment of temperature can reach such position at which the gate of adjustment of temperature will work in both extreme provisions. Position of the gate does not depend on the choice of the mode. The cable of control of the gate of adjustment of temperature fastens to the right side of the block of conditioning. As soon as the regulator of conditioning is installed in the mode: maximum, normal, two-level or the mode of defrosting, the electric fan of a radiator turns on. This additional characteristic is a part of functions of the regulator of conditioning, and it is necessary to prevent an overheat of the compressor and to ensure more effective functioning of air conditioning system. Functional check of air conditioning system is given in table 15.1.
Functional check of air conditioning system
Vacuum lines are collected in connecting knot which fastens to the vacuum control switch on the control unit (fig. 15.6). In case of leak or a rupture of a hose there is no need to replace all assembly knot. Repair can be executed as follows: cut a hose and insert a plastic connector. If after all it is necessary to replace a hose entirely, then cut off all hoses from connecting knot, and then attach them directly to the vacuum switch on the control unit.
At strong acceleration depression in an inlet collector decreases, at the same time the control valve in the vacuum chamber regulates the number of depression so that during the operation of the engine under loading it was enough for long term.
Relay and switch of high pressure
The switch of high pressure on the party of forcing located in a back part of the compressor represents the protection device intended for protection from excessive pressure in the compressor and reduction of risk of an exit of coolant through safety perepuskny the valve.
Being usually in a closed position, the switch will open a chain with a pressure on the party of forcing of 2965 kPa ±138 kPa and again will close a chain with a pressure of 1375 kPa ± 345 kPa.
Switch of low pressure
Protection of the compressor is provided by the switch of low pressure which disconnects a chain if charging low, and also switches off the compressor in cold weather. The switch is located in the pipeline.
The switch of the steering drive with the amplifier
For ensuring steady operation of the engine idling at high loads of the steering drive from the relay of pressure the signal on EMM (electronic module of management) which includes systems of adjustment of operation of the engine for compensation of these loadings arrives.